An unforgettable experience to know Machu Picchu? It is presented in all its magnitude and splendor from the open called Intipuncu (Intipunku), located a kilometer away on the hill of Machu Picchu.
The buildings emerge surrounded by high and steep snowy peaks, in the middle of a landscape of tropical vegetation typical of the Amazonian Andes. They are located at 2400 meters above sea level, at the coordinates 13º 32 ’23 “LS and 72º 32′ 34” LO, and extend 800 m along an uneven hill that is located between the peaks of the Huaynapicchu mountain (Waina Piktshu ) and Machu Picchu.
They are based on a geological formation whose perimeter was cut perpendicularly, generating precipices that project for 400 m, until reaching the roaring waters of the Urubamba canyon, which forms here an impressive meander that embraces the Machu Picchu hills on three sides. and Huayna Picchu.
An overview allows to notice two large areas in Machu Picchu: The Agrarian Zone and the Urban Zone. The first is made up of agricultural fields, and the second, by various buildings.
Haga click para ver La disponibilidad de Tour Machu Picchu con Camino Inca 2016… tiene un limite de espacios por dia durante todo el año. Con Anticipacion de su viaje deben reservar sus espacios para el camino inca a Machu Picchu.
Detailed itinerary of Tours Peru Machu Picchu
Pick up from hotel approx. At 7:30 a.m. then we go in our tourist transport for 6 hours until hydroelectric on the way we will make a stop in the town of Ollantaytambo approx. For 15 minutes, continuing with the trip we arrive at the Abra Málaga 4200 masl where we will make a stop to appreciate the landscape, then we descend from the Puna to the Selva de Selva impressive landscape we will arrive to Santa María and later until Santa Teresa where we will have lunch and continue until hydroelectric From where we start a 3 hour walk (there is the possibility of taking the train for 45 minutes) we arrive to Aguas Calientes where we will have dinner and brief talk with the guide about next day tour, accommodation in a basic hotel with private bathroom and Hot water.
According to the guide information and after breakfast very early we started the walking tours along the Inca trail until Machu Picchu Arriving at 6 am to Aguas Calientes (Machu Picchu town) where we will have a guided tour of 2 hours in the main sectors of the city of Machu Picchu then have free time in Machu Picchu until 12 and then down from Machu Picchu to Aguas Calientes ( Machu Picchu village) and take the train to Hydroelectric or walk 10 km. where our bus waits for us until 2:40 pm and will bring us back to Cusco arriving at the city at 9:30 pm approx.
End of services of Tours Peru Machu Picchu.
Important note the tours: At the agreed time, the night before the Machu Picchu by Car 2 days / 1 night, you will have a chat at your hotel with our professional tour guide Peru Machu Picchu – Sacred Land Adventures travel agency tour operator Cusco Peru.
Haga click aquí enterarse más tours de Aventura o haga click aquí enterarse de los Paquetes Turísticos con tours a MachuPicchu por tren o carro.
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Cusco – Peru
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The Peruvian historical monument of Machu Picchu (from the Quechua words machu, which means “old”, and picchu, meaning “mountain”) is the subject of modern works such as “The Dimension of Stone” (a poem by Julio Garrido Malaver), “The Secret of Machu Picchu” (by Ernesto Cardenal) and “The Heights of Machu Picchu” (by the Nobel Laureate Pablo Neruda). It has been, and is, sung of with enthusiasm in American literature, and perhaps Kipling himself might have lain down upon its terraces to feel the grass grow.
It was the first pre-Columbian complex to be discovered. But was it really discovered a hundred years ago? This depends on how one looks at it. Hiram Bingham, in his work “Machu Picchu, A Citadel of the Incas” (1930), the first of his books about the site, tells of how he was led there by the boy Pablito Álvarez, on that morning of July 24th 1911, after breakfasting in his peasant family’s home, when he had in fact been looking for another “lost city”. The boy told him that what he knew had been recounted to him by his parents, and that they had been taught by their parents and grandparents. What is certain is that Andean sandals had been crossing the terraces of Machu Picchu for many years and flocks had been pastured there, while its stone walls, covered by the forest, held on in near darkness to the last rays of their father, the sun god Inti. But it was rediscovered, yes, scientifically, and for the glory of humanity. In no time at all it emerged from its silence so that the world might hear its message. And that is something for which Bingham deserves credit. Soon afterwards the press of the time took up the story, and the world’s attention began to turn to the Andes.
Its architecture, combined with the beauty of the location and the forested heights, was marveled at by all as new discoveries were made. It was called “Paititi”, “the final stronghold of the Incas”, “a summer palace”, and new legends were invented and woven. The ignorant claimed that it had been built by extraterrestrials as a base. Baudin even suggested that Machu Picchu had been the core of a socialist state created by a group of “happy men”.
First, the beauty of its buildings of finely-wrought stone was revealed; but then, as the forest was cleared away, it was observed that at dawn the sun’s rays, like a modern lighting system, illuminated the walls and reflected their colors onto an immense green landscape.
Pre-Hispanic architecture is a response to the Andean world view; a circularity, within which all beings have life –an animistic yet accurate perspective- and form part of a social unit where each person responds individually, while at the same time a closed and eternal circular chain is formed. And so architecture did not supplant space, but instead, by virtue of its natural components, it adapted to and became a part of nature. And that is where its beauty lies, in its integration with its surroundings. Its creators could not imagine it any other way.
Machu Picchu waited, with the age-old patience of stone, for science to unravel its truth, until the first expeditions finally arrived and subjected it to scrutiny. However, in those early days archaeology was still the pastime of antiquarians and had yet to be raised to the level of a science. This is reflected in the three consecutive stages into which the relevant studies and publications can be divided:
From 1910 to 1960, with the exception of Bingham’s book, only descriptive articles were published, light texts devoid of documentation. In 1955, Manuel Chávez Ballón broadened the study of pottery to include stratigraphic and spatial analyses. Later, Harth Terré produced the first plan, and Herman Busse de la Guerra published the book Machu Picchu (1960).
The next stage ran from 1960 to 1990, when Jorge Muelle, Duccio Bonavía and Roger Ravines defined for the first time the limits of the site. Later, Luis Enrique Tord published the first Machu Picchu guidebook, and the development of Cuzco as a tourist destination was begun under the COPESCO Plan.
The third stage was characterized by an increased number of scientific studies. Archaeological research became more thorough, uncovering new structures and information. Historians, young architects and foreign expeditions became involved, as did new disciplines such as biology, anthropology and hydraulic and environmental engineering. And in the field of communication, through modern technology and new techniques, fresh angles and perspectives have been captured in ways that would have been impossible with old cameras. Cuzco’s fame grew, and a city that previously only attracted small groups of schoolchildren developed to accommodate the daily arrival of thousands of tourists.
From stone, which in Paleolithic times lengthened the reach of a man’s arm to facilitate the hunt, mankind progressed to the use of the spear and the knife, finally mastering hydraulic engineering. And, inevitably, mankind used such advances in order to please the gods. But at Machu Picchu these elements were not employed in order to satisfy the religious vanity of the elite. Instead the city was transformed into a monument to work, ritual and meditation. From its heights, Machu Picchu looked down upon the wise amautas and the remnants of a near-exterminated people and hid itself away, enduring its own Calvary and awaiting a more favorable time in which to return to life.
Machu Picchu is the synthesis of an ancient culture, of the outline and enduring mass of overlying stone, of the slope of the land, of the subterranean ducts through which water flows, of the heights, of systematic geography, of an understanding of climate, of the relationship of foodstuffs and harvests with time, of the agricultural calendar, of the beauty of the environment, of a contemplation of the universe, of social provision. It was, in fact, the temple of wisdom of its time.
With advances in communication media, its image has reached homes throughout the world and it is recognized everywhere. Via the internet, voters rightly called for it to be listed among the new Seven Wonders of the World. This is a well-deserved homage to a people, to a culture which the extirpators of idolatry and the fanatics of the inquisition considered pagan. But in its forested heart Machu Picchu retains much of its mystery.
Through their own panoramic vision of time, new generations must understand that Machu Picchu is not merely an architectural wonder, the height of Andean culture, but also a memorial to the anonymous individuals –from that boy Pablito Álvarez to intellectuals and scholars- who sacrificed years of their lives to recover and reevaluate an Andean philosophy that lives on in symbiosis with the modern world, together with a people who refuse to be subjugated: the eternal Cuzco of the Incas.
Machu Picchu [Matshu Piktshu] is usually translated as “old peak” (machu = old; picchu = summit of a hill), although this name clearly alludes to an accident of geography and would not have been the name by which the site was originally known. Also, given that the word “picchu” does not feature in old dictionaries like the one produced by Diego González Holguín (1608) or the more recent work by Ernst W. Middendorf (1890-92, v. 2), the possibility exists that the place name may be a corruption of the Spanish word “pico”, in the sense of “the top or summit of a hill” (Kauffmann Doig 2005 p. 14).
González Holguín indicates that “mountain summit” [“cumbre de monte”] is translated into the language of the Incas as “orcop uman” [literally, “hill head”], as does Middendorf, who gives us the translation as “orkoj uman”.
Within the framework of this discussion, we propose that there exists a possibility which should not be dismissed that “picchu” comes from the Spanish word “pico”, or “mountain summit”, and that when spoken by native Quechua speakers its pronunciation may have been gradually changed until the word “picu”, and finally “picchu”, would have been formed.
The place name Picho or Piccho, apparently referring to Machu Picchu, appears in documents from the 16th century discovered in recent years (Glave and Remy 1983, Rowe 1990, Varón 1993). Quite rightly, John H. Rowe (1990) concludes that these references do not refer to archaeological sites, but rather to geographic areas.
Although the word does not feature in old dictionaries, or in the Quechua [Qetshwa] language spoken today, José Uriel García (1961), turning his attention to the etymology of Machu Picchu, rejects the translation of “picchu” as “summit”. Assuming that Machu Picchu was the original name of the site, he suggests that “picchu” is a neuter noun which “derives from the verb ‘picchay’ or ‘the act of chewing coca leaves’”.
In light of the above, we must accept that the word “picchu”, if it is a corruption of the Spanish word for summit, does not help us to establish what the original name given to the ruins which are known today as Machu Picchu might have been, when the site was still occupied by its original inhabitants.
When Bingham arrived at Machu Picchu, the ruins were known by this name among local people. It has been speculated that the original name may have been lost because, in common with many other sites located in the Vilcabamba region, it remained uninhabited for centuries after the Incas of Vilcabamba were finally defeated in 1572. However, it seems that Machu Picchu was abandoned long before the arrival of the Spaniards in the territory of the Incas (see Part XIV). Evidence that Machu Picchu was abandoned for centuries is contained in declarations included in a document from the first years of the 18th century (Arias Topete, 1710). During the explorations made by Juan Arias Diaz Topete in the Vilcabamba region –beginning at Choquequirao, a site he mentions in his Memorial, published by Lorenzo Huertas (1973)- he declared that he saw and identified as many as “four ancient towns totally abandoned by their people…” (Arias Diaz Topete 1710: 204). As well as Choquequirao, he mentions “Vilcabamba La Grande” and “Chuquiritay”. But perhaps it would be too much of a coincidence if Chuquitiray had indeed been the original name of the ruins of Machu Picchu, given that there are so many imposing archaeological sites throughout the Vilcabamba region.
The book by José Uriel García, “MACHUPICCHU, An Inca Center for Female Workers – Document in Stone Recounting the History of the Incas”, published in 1961, presents “an analysis of the remaining architectural structures of the city of MachuPicchu. The work is based on evidence that time and climatic phenomena have permitted to survive among the structures, enabling a comparison with others scattered throughout the region where the Inca Empire developed”. José Uriel García was a scholar of Quechua culture, as part of his training as a materialistic philosopher. His knowledge of the art and sociology of high Andean peoples enabled him to expound objectively upon these monumental documents in order to provide greater insight into the history of daily life during the Inca period. The masterly beauty of MachuPicchu is objectively appraised in this important work, which was published in 1961 “to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the revealing of its existence to the world” (Uriel García).
Among the chroniclers who offer what is up to a certain point reliable information regarding the death of Pachacutec (c.1471) and the place where he was interred, we have Juan de Betanzos with his Suma y narración de los incas (1551-1556), impeccably published by María del Carmen Martín Rubio. His comments are worthy of particular attention, given that they were recorded early, between 1542 and 1557, and also because he was married to the main wife of the late Atahualpa, the last sovereign of the Inca state. According to Betanzos, (2004, chapters XXXI-XXXII), when Pachacutec died he was taken to Patallacta (Llactapata) to be interred. Based on data from Diez de Betanzos, the historian Mari Carmen Martin Rubio proposes that Patallacta was the name by which MachuPicchu was originally known, and that therefore it would have been the place where the Inca sovereign was buried; not his mummified body, but rather a “bundle” or “double”, in accordance with the traditions surrounding the death of an Inca ruler (Jarque, 2012). This site may have been the most important Inca agricultural and ceremonial site in the Vilcabamba region, followed by several others that we believe served the same function and which were scattered throughout the region. Llactapata is two or three days from Machu Picchu, and its majestic terracing and groups of buildings are situated on the edge of the canyon formed by the Cusichaca River, which flows into the Vilcanota-Urubamba not far from the site. Also, Patallaqta is a place name in the city of Cuzco itself, near the parish of San Blas.
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Cusco – Peru
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