Peru Machu Picchu Tours Tourism

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Cusco – Peru

Peru Machu Picchu Tours Tourism.- Peru is a country recognized worldwide for its authenticity, biodiversity, historical heritage and for being the birthplace of one of the oldest civilizations on the planet. However, now he faces challenges of a changing market and increasingly competitive in travel and / or tours. Market research conducted show that the current tourist looking for experiences that make a change in your life on tours, contribute to personal fulfillment and, of course, that stimulate their senses; all accompanied by quality services and infrastructure that every tourist destination should offer their travel and / or tours. Therefore, the National Tourism Strategic Plan proposes 9 strategic objectives that will make the destination Peru is competitive and sustainable travel in Peru and around the world. These objectives aim: the increase in currency in Peru, increased domestic and international tourists in tours to Peru, diversification of supply to attract new market segments, strengthening of human resources in tourism promotion of a tourist culture and service offering with international quality standards. Importantly for the fulfillment of the strategic objectives of the sector, joint public – private is one of its main pillars on all tours. Therefore, the role of both sectors is transcendental and contribute to the consolidation of the tourism sector in the country – Peru. In 2012, Peru signed the Letter of Commitment Tourism Development – Golden Book, promoted by the World Tourism Organization and the World Travel and Tourism, through which our country is committed to ensuring an integrated growth tourism in Peru. In that sense, and by mainstreaming tourism in Peru, multisectoral articulation plays a fundamental role, since it requires the convergence of actions of various government sectors with Tours in Peru. Finally, in order to ensure that tourism becomes a tangible tool for economic, social, cultural and environmental development, MINCETUR reaffirms its commitment to this activity, hoping to reach the 2021 figure of 5.1 million international tourists in Tours Peru, tours to Machu Picchu, tours Cusco Tours Puno Tours Arequipa, Tours Lima, etc, increased to 4.24% its contribution to GDP, increase the flow of travel for domestic tourism, making tourism the second generator of foreign exchange in the country of Peru and promote the generation of new jobs, to help improve the quality of life of the population in Peru.

Tourism in Peru Machu Picchu:

Tourism employs millions of people worldwide, generates trade, improve the quality of life of communities, shortens differences among nations and promotes the development of countries through the experiences generated on trips around the world and with trips to Peru. These are the reasons that allow us to state that tourism is becoming a major generating activities economic and social development in the world, and our country is not exempt from this trend. Peru in 2012 marked a milestone in world tourism, as the number of record of 1 billion international tourists with tours Peru was reached, as reported to the World Tourism Organization – UNWTO, and in 2013 is expected to grow 4% over the previous year in Peru. Moreover, most dynamic growth of international tourism is in the emerging regions of Asia, Latin America, Central and Eastern Europe, Middle East and Africa, where it is highlighted to Peru, in contrast to advanced economies.

The increase of the middle class at global and national level is another important trend, since it represents a great opportunity for companies to address this demand, requiring innovation and adaptation to suit your tastes. Also, the attribute “place of origin” is becoming more important, which makes the product is conceived as an expression of the values ​​that identifies a region or country of origin, why, the country brand influences also in the purchase decision. These trends, both internationally and nationally, are the reasons that have prompted us to upgrade and expand its horizon PENTUR until 2021. This renewed PENTUR proposes a multi-thematic approach, seeking that Peru develop tourism products differentiated in their tours Peru, in different market sectors, such as cultural tourism, nature, adventure, to cite some examples in Peru. This offer is intended to cover multi-thematic specialized segments based on different options and, at the same time complementary. The main objective of PENTUR is to position Peru as a competitive and sustainable tourist destination on trips to Peru. This seeks to increase foreign exchange earnings from inbound tourism, increase the flow of domestic and international tourists in the country and position the destination Peru at national and international level. It also seeks to consolidate and diversify tourism in Peru, promoting tourism culture among Peruvians with Tours in Peru, to promote the institutional strengthening of state agencies and institutions responsible for destination management, among other objectives allow make tourism a development tool economic, social, cultural and environmental in Peru.

Tourism in Peru resources:

Cultural and natural tourism resources that Peru has, and the characteristics of its territory have led to conclude that Peru has a multi-thematic offer. From this approach, the PENTUR proposed that Peru develop differentiated products for niche segments in tours to Peru, Tours Machu Picchu, tours Cusco Tours Puno Tours Arequipa, tours Amazonico, etc, designing for each alternative according to travel motivations, away from mass tourism. The tourism sector has a number of comparative and competitive advantages. Thus, according to the Competitiveness Ranking of Travel and Tourism WEF among 140 countries assessed, Peru has strengths related to natural resources, species diversity, cultural resources and marketing effectiveness to attract tourism. On the other hand, according to the same ranking there are challenges to face in the tours in Peru, such as travel safety and / or tours, infrastructure terrestreaéreo transportation, basic infrastructure, improving the business climate and strengthening human resource the Peru tours.

Some key trends in demand for travel and tourism in Peru:

The PENTUR in Peru 2012-2021 includes the main travel trends in the international market, of which the following stand out: Search authenticity in travel. According to studies realizados5 has been identified today travelers are in search of new destinations, culture, gastronomy, theme trips and desire for experiences that are authentic, combined with comfort, quality and high standards of service in each tours . In this regard, Peru, and other destinations in South America, Eastern Europe and the Middle East, will be favored by this travel trend. PromPeru, in line with global trends has established 06 communication axes aligned design of tourism products with market focus in Peru, as follows:

  1. Tours Peru Current
  2. Natural Tours Peru
  3. Peru Adventure Tours
  4. Fascinating Peru Tours
  5. Millennial Peru Tours
  6. Cultura Viva Tours Peru


The Archaeological Heritage of Machu Picchu, of great importance in the heyday of the Inca period Tawantisuyo, was known limitedly during the Spanish conquest and the Viceroyalty, and was looted and extirpate idolatry of the Spaniards against the Inca empire. While it was generally underestimated and relegated, reduced to a few isolated monuments, it is mentioned in several documents, with various denominations, Pichu and others, which are the subject of archaeological and scientific study, as we shall see later on Peru. There are signs of its existence in various documents of the nineteenth century, and several Peruvian and foreign personalities as consignaban, and even informed about it. In 1911 Hiram Bingham, with the support of Yale University and the National Geographic Society, it performs what is known as “scientific discovery in Peru,” which allowed exposing the country and the world the importance of the Inca heritage of Machu Picchu, clasping a “lost city” of the Incas. This universal knowledge resignifica start to Machu Picchu in Peru vision on, and is an icon of our national and regional identity. The statement about its meaning and safeguarding of the cultural heritage of Machu Picchu, have gone hand in hand with the vicissitudes of the nation in the twentieth century in a complex process of valorisation, discoveries, conflicting, regional resignifications and nationally concerning the significance of this place taken as sacred Machu Picchu in Peru. From the moment of his “made known to the world” was imposed based on the predominance manage its tourist values. During this commissioning universal knowledge occurred very serious separation between the great stone monuments of the Inca city of Machu Picchu, the Inca Trail and Inca sites related in this town high and Amazonian Andean nexus, and cultural artifacts of Inca archaeological pieces many, despite being recognized ownership of Peru, were retained by Bingham outside the country, and so far have not returned to their place of origin that is Machu Picchu. Thus, it has been limited source of research and evaluations in Peru. It has cut a substantial part of the assets in Peru and Machu Picchu, which affects national and regional cultural identity of Peru. Additionally, for many years the clearance of tropical weeds in the Inca city of Machu Picchu was treated as a matter of public works infrastructure and not of archaeological heritage research Inca in Peru, leading to dramatic situations such as the burial of remains Inca archaeological as if it were waste and destruction of Inca walls to open facilities to tourist visitors in Peru. The formation of the National Archaeological Park of Machu Picchu, located in the area of ​​the district of the same name Machu Picchu village in Aguas Calientes, in Cusco Region, with an area of ​​32,592 hectares, has been a response to give dominance to cultural management in Peru . Since the mid-1930s, the Inca city of Machu Picchu, was attended by the Peruvian State by staff of former Board Department of Archaeology, almost 20 years after the work begun by Hiram Bingham in 1911. It was created by Law 9396 in Peru, with an area of ​​10,000 hectares, becoming the first protected by state and second in the South American continent, managed at the time by former Department of Archaeology Board, and subsequently by the House of Culture Cusco area. In 1952 he prepared by Supreme Decree restoration of Machu Picchu. In 1962 the site museum in Machu Picchu, waiting for their main pieces that Bingham took the United States, and offered it back to Peru all its parts does not return until today was created. Since 1972 the park goes to the National Institute of Culture on the management of Machu Picchu.

Archaeological Park of Machu Picchu in Peru:

With the formation of the Archaeological Park of Machu Picchu, in the first instance greater interest to the work of conservation and maintenance of the Inca city of Machu Picchu and he Wiñaywayna. In the late 70s of last century in Peru, the maintenance and conservation of the Inka Trail to Machu Picchu they start. As you can see, at that time the management and conservation of Machu Picchu park was in charge of the agency in charge of managing the cultural heritage of Peru, which states that sought to overcome its reduction to tourism development in Peru. In 1968 the Board of Archaeology Department of Cusco area delimited by the name of “Machu Picchu Archaeological Park” on further to 50,555 ha. In 1972 the “Financial Economic Survey of COPESCO Plan” to boost socio-economic development of the Cusco-Puno area, in which, among other sub-projects of tourist facilities and restoration of historical monuments are recorded was developed in Peru. In February 1973, an agreement making studies of subproject of tourist facilities, including PERU and COPESCO ENTUR was signed. the idea of ​​developing a botanical garden representing the flora of Machu Picchu, in addition to the hotel complex in Machu Picchu, constituting both the tourist center of Machu Picchu was initially conceived. The technical office of COPESCO Plan, to start preliminary studies for this Botanical Garden of Machu Picchu, detected strong pressures affecting the flora and fauna of Machu Picchu, so the initial design of the project was changed, redirecting towards protection the natural environment. Based on the tourism aspect raised by COPESCO, the creation of a National Park (protected area) it was formulated as better suited to the needs of Peru. This meant for the initial promoters of the idea, the presence of a natural botanical garden in addition to the archaeological attractions of Machu Picchu. Tourist Center of Machu Picchu, initially had an area of ​​approximately 50,500 ha. covering the area bounded by the Board of Archaeology Department of Cusco area. It was politically located in the districts of Huayopata, Occobamba and Santa Teresa of the province of the Convention and districts of Machu Picchu and Ollantaytambo in the province of Urubamba; Q’ente the grounds of Santa Rita de Q’ente, Torontoy, Huadquiña, Yanama, Totora, Piscacucho, Mandor, Collpani Grande and San Pedro, while some of these on the date of the proposals, involvement and reversal process comprising the State. In 1981 the cultural and natural management overlap.

Peru on January 8, 1981, by Supreme Decree the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu (SHM) is created. Declares the intangibility of the area of ​​Machu Picchu, which set in 32,592 hectares., A protected natural area, which overlaps the archaeological park. They assume the Ministry of Agriculture interference with competition in protected natural areas, and the Ministry of Education, with competence, through the INC of Peru, cultural and archaeological issues. On December 9, 1983, the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu is inscribed by UNESCO on the List of World Cultural and Natural Heritage, with registration number 54. After this declaration in Peru, the work of conservation and restoration intensify however, further pressure its value, especially in terms of tourism for tours to Machu Picchu is increased. Are added, then, attempts by the various state agencies related to tourism, to have interference in the affairs of SHM. For most of the decade this overlap seriously affected the management of the area of ​​Machu Picchu. Various institutions were overlapping in the management of SHM such as DRIT, Ministry of Agriculture, Municipality of Machu Picchu, Urubamba Municipality, Regional Government, Enturin, among others in Peru.


Management weaknesses to the substantial increase of tourism to Machu Picchu, both towards Inca City and to the Inca Trail, and the cares of the Peruvian Government of that time to emphasize it even more, led the UNESCO began to warn of the risks to this World Heritage Site. The Government of Ing. Fujimori then drove the development of SHM Master Plan (1998-2003) and in August 1998 the Management Unit of Machu Picchu is created.

The livelihood of the Master Plan was the conservation of the Sanctuary of Machu Picchu, but gave further impetus to increased tourist use and management with private tours to Machu Picchu or trips to Machu Picchu. Their spines were the biggest tourist use in their tours (extension of the hotel, night lighting, 24-hour visits to Machu Picchu, etc.); increasing access facilities in tours to Machu Picchu (cable car, etc.); and private management of equipment, including the granting of Inca roads and the railway to Machu Picchu. It was intended to transform the SHM in a place of attraction for overall world tourism, with oversaturated access, which has been irremediably affect its character as a sacred place and icon of cultural, regional and national partner of Peru identity.

Years passed in Peru reaching overlapping powers not resolved. This is seen, for example, in drafting the new regulation Network Inca Trail to Machu Picchu, which unfortunately suffered alterations in its final form by the MINCETUR member of the Steering Committee of the UGM and the new ROF of UGM, where the creation of Alternate Committee, which is composed of representatives of the Regional Government of Cusco, DIRTCETUR, INRENA and INC is approved.

Regarding the impact made so far in Peru (2000) by the Machu Picchu Program on social development and the protection of natural areas of the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu, from levels of budget execution of each component is stressed that having after nearly five years in Peru tours (71% of total running time) “is disappointing,” they say its makers, has run only 31.12% of the resources available, carried out in actions whose impact on the management of the Sanctuary of Machu Picchu still (studies, plans, regulations) is not noticed. The extreme slowness in the overall progress of the program in Peru, by spending explained in administrative matters and investments with no real priority impact. The influence of this guiding primacy began to suffer various actions pushed to the deterioration of the heritage of Machu Picchu, with disorder in the flow of tourists to Machu Picchu in Peru, chaos in the town center of Aguas Calientes (Machu Picchu village) in the area of ​​SHM, and increasing overlap of functions between different sectors of the public administration of Peru.


UNESCO had been warning the Peruvian Government regarding the dangers of the SHM. Machu Picchu and its management, almost practically since the World Heritage Committee at its 7th session in December 1983, decided to inscribe the Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu (SHM) in the list of World Heritage. The decision of the World Heritage Committee reads as follows: “The Committee noted that this site fits both its natural and cultural values, as this property meets criteria (i) and (ii). The committee also recommended that to improve the natural and cultural value of this property of Machu Picchu, the site should be extended to include the lower reaches of Urubamba river and the sites of Pisac and Ollantaytambo in the “Valley of the Gods” Of the various missions UNESCO, the IUCN-ICOMOS mission took place from February 25 to March 1, 2002 had the task of:

  1. Analyze the status of implementation of the conclusions and recommendations of the mission of 1999 in the following areas: arrangements for the planning and management of the site Machu Picchu; Access to the site of Machu Picchu; tourism management; management Machupicchu Pueblo (Aguas Calientes); extension of the site Machu Picchu; and the general state of conservation that include analysis of factors with the greatest impact on the site of Machu Picchu such as the status of investigations of landslides in Machu Picchu and arrangements and proposals that have been defined for this purpose, fire forest and other (item 3.5 of the report Peru 1999).
  2. Assess the current use of the site Machu Picchu for commercial purposes in terms of regulation, control and supervision of Machu Picchu.
  3. Assess the state of conservation of Intihuatana, investigations have been conducted and proposals that have been made and / or decisions that have been taken.

The observations and conclusions of this mission of Machu Picchu indicate that between 1999 and 2002 no significant progress was made and see the need to implement fully 10 of the 16 recommendations made by the 1999 mission: to provide human and financial resources to the Unit Management; ensure full support to the Management Unit; establish effective mechanisms and clear communication among the institutions involved; develop operational plans short and medium term to implement strategies outlined in the Master Plan of Machu Picchu, and ensure its implementation; establish mechanisms to monitor the effective and proper implementation of the Master Plan; studies to define the carrying capacity of the Inca citadel of Machu Picchu and Machu Picchu Pueblo (Aguas Calientes); Conduct a study to determine the best means of access to the Sanctuary and the Inca citadel of Machu Picchu, based on defined load capacity; a study for the reorganization and reduction of facilities in the Citadel of Machu Picchu; proceed with preparatory activities for the expansion of Machu Picchu Sanctuary; review the criteria for restoration Inca archaeological sites and structures in light of a proposal minimal intervention in the Master Plan for Machu Picchu. Since 2002 these warning calls intensify, and has a key to occur in April 2004 landslides in the area of ​​Machu Picchu Pueblo (Aguas Calientes), in the populated center within the time SHM – Machu Picchu. It is included in the agenda of the session of UNESCO in 2004 in China, so try consider heritage in danger, if the Peruvian government did not take effective measures. The National INC and Cusco, in conjunction with INRENA, presented a report with the new guidelines put in cultural and natural heritage conservation of Machu Picchu value. The Government of Peru has two other initiatives: a project Reorganization and Rehabilitation Vilcanota River, in agreement with the World Bank for $ 8 million; and the formation of a multi-sectoral commission of World Heritage sites, including Machu Picchu. Based on these considerations, it is that UNESCO gives a new term to the Peruvian State, constituting the development of new Master Plan of Machu Picchu a key thereon.