Tours Machu Picchu Posando con el gigante de visitantes ilustres como un acto magnético, la montaña tours machu picchu llama también a las celebridades, que solas o con sus seguridades llegan y, como cualquier mortal, sacan sus imágenes en esta, una de las Siete Maravillas del Mundo dentro del Peru magico.
PIEDRA LATINOAMERICANA DE TOURS MACHU PICCHU:
El primer “famoso” del que se tiene referencia pisó tours Machu Picchu fue Ernesto “Che” Guevara: En 1951 llegó acompañado de su amigo y colega, Ernesto Granado, cuando ambos recorrieron más de 8 mil kilómetros sudamericanos en nueve meses. La cinta del brasiñero Walter Salles, Diarios en motocicleta (2004), retrata a un jovencísimo “Che” boquiabierto ante tanta belleza del prodigio de la piedra sobre piedra inca, desafiando la naturaleza. Quien dio vida en la ficción al mítico médico revolucionario es el no menos famoso, actor mexicano Gael García.
Si hablamos de universales, no obviemos al Nobel de Literatura Pablo Neruda. El bardo chileno llegó en octubre de 1943. Dicen que al final del entonces largo viaje del Cusco a Machu Picchu tours, exclamó “¡qué sitio para hacer un cordero asado!”. Empero más allá de lo pintoresco de la frase, en sus memorias el gran Neftalí Reyes escribió que en el “centro de aquel ombligo de piedra machu” “me sentí chileno, peruano, americano”. Las palabras de Neruda las recordaría en 1981, rodeado de las mismas terrazas, escaleras y pasadizos incas del siglo XV, otro latinoamericano universal: Mario Vargas Llosa, cuando filmaba un especial televisivo (ver artículo “La historia detrás de las Alturas”).
PIEDRA FAMOSA Y UNIVERSAL TOURS MACHU PICCHU:
La fama de este prodigio de la arquitectura de los tiempos de Pachacútec, ha atraído por el fantasma de su fama a cientos de “famosos”, de artes, política y deportes, que se confunden en los más de dos mil turistas que a diario llegan a Machu Picchu, tomando el tren desde Cusco y luego el servicio de buses en Aguas Calientes pueblo machupicchu. Ya en los años ochenta, el rey y la reina de España llegaron en helicóptero. Se cuenta que para que aterricen los reyes ibéricos se tuvo que mover de su espacio una gran roca, que nunca volvió a su lugar original. Pasemos lista apretujada de machu: Los gringos aman Cusco, desde los tiempos de los pelucones hippies es destino favorito.
La semana pasada causó revuelo la presencia del actor Jim Carrey. En enero de este año, el actor Richard Gere llegó con su familia para enamorarse un poco más de Machu Picchu. Machu Picchu es democrática y no le importa el bolsillo de la gente (dicen que para los turistas acostumbrados al mundo de las “cinco estrellas”, es un destino turístico “cómodo” comparado con otros puntos del globo).
Meses antes un tours, la actriz neoyorquina Susan Sarandon, seguida de los ubicuos paparazis, también visitó la maravilla incaica con su viaje a machu picchu. Otra figura del planeta Hollywood, el “ángel de Charlie” Lucy Liu aprovechó un paréntesis en su gira como Embajadora de Buena Voluntad de Unicef y se dio su vuelta por la ciudadela inca. En setiembre del año pasado, también, la bella modelo y actriz inglesa Denise Van Outen hizo un viaje a Machu Picchu. Llegó en campaña para prevenir el cáncer de mama junto a seis mujeres diagnosticadas con el mal. En junio de 2007, el hombre con la billetera de 56 mil millones de dólares, Bill Gates, llegó con su esposa Melina, sus amigos y los miembros de su seguridad personal en avión privado. El fundador de Microsoft tocó los muros de Machu Picchu tours y participó de la recreación del Inti Raymi en la fortaleza de Sacsayhuamán.
Ese mismo año un tours, cuando al complejo arqueológico se convirtió en una de las Siete Nuevas Maravillas del Mundo, también nos visitó otra figura de Hollywood, la rubia de los labios carnosos, Cameron Diaz. Llegó con el rapero canadiense Sol Guy. Ambos desafiaron los más de 2 mil 660 m.s.n.m. del Huaynapicchu tours para filmar el programa Real, que transmitió el canal NatGeo. Ese año también llegaron los actores Owen Wilson y Woody Harrelson, que no aguantaron mucho la presencia de los paparazis quitándole privacidad a sus días de vacaciones. Gajes de la fama. Causó menos revuelo, en 2009, la presencia del cineasta Ron Howard, famoso por su papel como el “Richie Cunningham” de la teleserie Días felices.
Hay tácticas para tratar de pasar inadvertidos, de tratar de ser un turista más. En 2003, Leonardo Di Caprio con su gorrita trató de cubrir su fama junto con su guapa novia brasilera Giselle Bundchen, la madre de ésta y una mancha de familiares y amigos. Cada detalle de su viaje a machu picchu se hizo noticia en todas las páginas de farándula del globo. Uno con menos pulgas, Adrien Brody (ganador del Oscar por El Pianista) visitó la ciudadela inca junto con su novia, la española Elsa Pataky, quien llegó para grabar en el norte del país nuestro galardonado filme Máncora. No se puede dejar de mencionar el paso de la colombiana Shakira, de la cubano-americana Gloria Estefan (que filmó en el Cusco el videoclip de “Hoy”, de Gianmarco), el futbolista español Iker Casillas, la cantante y actriz Olivia Newton John, una larga lista de presidentes. Es que como Machu Picchu, no hay dos. Perdonen la humildad.
Visiones de Machu Picchu: 100 años de fotografía en blanco y negro se exhibe en el Icpna de Miraflores (avenida Angamos Oeste 120). Hasta el 14 de agosto.
LA FORMA DE TUS SUEÑOS TOURS MACHU PICCHU: Parafraseando la novela El halcón maltés, Machu Picchu tiene la forma de la que están hechos los sueños. “A pesar de los cambios tecnológicos y de estilo, cada fotógrafo tiene su sello”, concluye el curador. Silva es un apasionado por Cusco que luego de varios trabajos en festividades propias de esta región, como la fiesta del Señor de Qoyllur Rit’i, retrató él mismo el santuario hace algunos años.
At the other end of the sun’s path – Tours Peru Machu Picchu A new interpretation of Machu Picchu
The Inca citadel of Machu Picchu is usually interpreted as a “royal estate” of the Inca ruler Pachacuti. This idea is challenged here by a critical reappraisal of existing sources and a re-analysis of existing evidences. It is shown that such evidences actually point at a quite different interpretation.
This interpretation is suggested, on one side, by several clues coming from the urban layout, the interior arrangement of the town, the ancient access ways, the position with respect to the landscape and the cycles of the celestial bodies in Inca times and, on the other side, by a comparison with known information about the Inca pilgrimage center on the Island of the Sun of the Titicaca lake. Altogether, the above mentioned clues lead to propose that Machu Picchu was intentionally planned and built as a pilgrimage center connected with the Inca “ cosmovision” – day Tours Peru Machu Picchu.1. Introduction – Tours Peru Machu Picchu:
This paper analyzes one of the most beautiful and enigmatic achievements ever reached by architecture worldwide. It is an ancient Andean town whose original name is unknown; it is anyway famous with the name Machu Picchu. Although it may seem strange at a first glance for such a renewed archaeological site, the reason why the town was built, the date at which it was built, the ruler who ordered its construction, the reason why it was abandoned, in a word, the interpretation of this place are unknown as well. For reasons we do not know indeed, Machu Picchu was abandoned and forgotten; it was brought again to the attention of the world only with the famous 1911 Hiram Bingham’s expedition (see Bingham 1952, or Salazar-Burger 2004 for an up-to-date account) – Travel Machu Picchu – Day tours Peru.. Immediately after its “re-discovery” the site was enveloped by a halo of mystery. Bingham by himself thought it to be the “lost capital” of the last Inca reign, Vilcabamba, an interpretation that we know to be untenable today, and various errors and misunderstandings further contributed to the confusion, such as, for instance, a high over-estimate of the percentage of feminine bones found in the burials, a thing that caused the suspicion that Machu Picchu could have been a sanctuary inhabited by Inca’s “Virgins of the Sun” – Travel Machu Picchu – Day tours Peru.
Today, this as well as others, even more unsound theories have been canceled by modern archaeological research (for instance, the true excess of female with respect to male bones is around 1.46 to 1) – Travel Machu Picchu – Day tours Peru.. Modern research also helped, for instance, to clarify the day-by-day life of the inhabitants (see Burger 2004 and references therein). However, contemporary to such important developments, nothing has really come out that may help to explain why and when the Incas built the town (or at least, this is the opinion of the present author, to be substantiated in what follows) – Travel Machu Picchu – Day tours Peru.
Living without interpretation schemes is extremely difficult in any science (e.g. Physics) and Archaeology is no exception. Therefore, archaeologists have adopted a scheme, a sort of dogma on the true meaning of the town: the idea that Machu Picchu has to be identified as one of the “royal estates” of the Inca Pachacuti (Rowe 1990) Travel Machu Picchu – Day tours Peru.
What is today customarily called a Inca “royal estate” was a land property, nominally owned by the king and managed by his family clan. A royal estate was typically composed by agricultural lands and “palaces” meant as residences for the ruler and the elite. These places were used for amusement (such as hunting) and perhaps also for treating state affairs (daily tours peru, daily tours machu picchu).
A good example of royal estates is tours Chincero, property of Topa Inca, described in details by the chronicler Betanzos as a property “where to go for recreation” and thoroughly analyzed by Niles (1999). Other important Inca sites have been interpreted as royal estates as well, and in particular Pisac and Ollantaytambo. To the best of the present author’s knowledge, however, there is no textual evidence whatsoever showing that Pisac was a royal estate (Pisac is never mentioned in the Spanish chronicles). More convincing is the case of Ollantaytambo (Protzen 1993) (daily tours peru, daily tours machu picchu).
This place is in fact associated with the ruler Pachacuti in some Spanish accounts and, in particular, Sarmiento de Gamboa says that the king “took as his own the valley…where he erected some magnificent buildings”. As far as Machu Picchu is concerned, it is easy to get the impression from most of the scholarly work that there exist firm textual evidences for the town to be a Pachacuti’s royal estate as well. However, as discussed in full details here in Appendix 1, it is not so (daily tours peru, daily tours machu picchu).
It is the aim of the present paper to propose a completely different theory regarding the reasons why the town was conceived and built. To “make room” for such an interpretation I am going to use a scientific instrument which is typical of a Physicist’s way of thinking: Occam’s razor. According to this principle, what is unproved and un-needed not only can, but also should be cut away from any scientific approach to a problem. I thus attempt to show (Appendix 1) that actually there is no proof whatsoever, neither textual nor archaeological, that Machu Picchu was built as a private estate for Pachacuti (or, for what matters, for any other Inca ruler) (daily tours peru, daily tours machu picchu).
The interpretation as a royal estate therefore is both unproved and un-needed: Occam’s razor allows us to cut it. Further, although I do not exclude that the site may have had secondary functions, also the “multi-functional” interpretation adopted by some scholars, who view in Machu Picchu a royal estate but also a sacred and perhaps also administrative center (see e.g. Reinhard 2007, Malville and Ziegler 2007) is refused here (daily tours peru, daily tours machu picchu). The reason is that this point of view again does not help to explain those characteristics of the site (such the urban project, for instance) which render Machu Picchu unique among the Inca towns, and those other characteristics (such as the clear directionality in access and fruition) which render Machu Picchu almost unique, the sole possible comparison being a place whose main function had nothing to do with royal estates or multi-functional centers: the sanctuary on the Island of the Sun (Section 4) (daily tours peru, daily tours machu picchu).
All in all, as a working hypothesis in what follows I will neglect any pre-existing interpretation. This means trying to explore the problem of the meaning of Machu Picchu starting from, and only from, the very beginning: the town itself (daily tours peru, daily tours machu picchu).2. A “non-standard” description of Machu Picchu Tours:
Machu Picchu lies at 2400 mts. of altitude, built as a Condor’s nest between the two paired peaks (HuaynaPicchu to the north and Machu Picchu to the south) which form a sort of peninsula, surrounded on three sides by the gorges of the Urubamba river some 80 Kms north-west of the capital of the Inca empire, Cusco (tours a machu picchu, day tour peru).
It would be of course out of the scope of the present paper to give a full description of the site; however, we need a clear idea of the urban layout and of the relationship of the town with the landscape. Here we immediately encounter a curious problem. Indeed, since the city is stretched in an approximate southeast-northwest direction (conform to the general direction of the Machu Picchu – HuaynaPicchu ridge), saving of space on paper-sheets usually implies – starting from the very first Bingham’s plan – that north is put lower right (tours a machu picchu, day tour peru).
However, this way of mapping the town changes completely the correct perspective in which the place is – and most important was – actually visited by a newcomer. Further, this unusual orientation makes it difficult to have a glance at the orientation of the buildings with respect to the path of the sun and of the stars, as well as to the relationships of the layout of the town with the cardinal points (and the mountains associated to them tours a machu picchu, day tour peru).
Therefore, although it may seem somewhat a trivial point, I consider fundamental for a correct interpretation of the site to refer to a north-on-top map (to this aim I have rotated one of the original maps made by Bingham, see Fig. 1 tours a machu picchu, day tour peru). Further, to understand the layout of tours Machu Picchu it is important to keep in mind that the complete urban plan was conceived, planned, founded and built from scratch, following the precise will of the planner on the basis of a global unitary project laid out after an accurate and complete survey of the area and, in particular, of the natural rock outcrops which were scattered around. Many such rocks were leveled; others however were “interpreted” in an artistic way, in accordance with that special feeling of the Inca artists for the stone and, in particular, for the shapes of stones that “replicate” natural elements. Huge boulders and existing caves were therefore wonderfully integrated into the project (tours a machu picchu, day tour peru).
Each time the planner felt it necessary, the terrain was leveled with the use of a sophisticated technique of superimposed foundation layers. It is thought that as much as 60% of the work involved in the construction of the town is buried in its basements (Wright and Valencia Zagarra 2001). Finally, it is important to notice that the town is deprived of water sources, and therefore a careful project was needed to construct an aqueduct which brings water from a spring located higher on the north flank of tours a Machu Picchu mountain (tours a machu picchu, day tour peru).
The town was abandoned when this huge building program was near to completion, so that some elements – such as for instance the area of the temple of the three windows – were left unfinished, as it was, probably, another magnificent architectural task of the Incas, namely the tours Sacsahuaman “fortress” in Cusco (Protzen 2004). It is of course difficult to estimate the time employed to bring the site to the present almost-finished state (to the best of my knowledge, nobody has ever tried to figure this time out). In any case, it is hard to believe that from the beginning of the planning to the state visible today – with the inclusion of hundreds of agricultural terraces – less than, say, some tens of years could have lasted (decidedly a long time to wait for a private estate to be ready – tours a machu picchu, day tour peru).
The rigorous, unitary project inspiring the construction of the town remained fully unaltered after the conquest, contrary to what happened to the other Inca settlements. There is, however, a notable exception, the provincial site called Huanuco Pampa (Morris & Thompson 1985). This town was created by the Incas as an administrative center, and as such it has nothing to do with tours a Machu Picchu from a functional point of view. However, it is very useful as a term of comparison in order to gain a better understanding of the inspiring principles of Inca town planning (Hyslop 1990). tours a Huanuco was founded in the central highlands of Chinchaysuyu, at 3700 metres of altitude. The Spaniards gave up rapidly the idea of living at such an unfriendly altitude, and therefore the place was soon abandoned (Fig. 2, right). It exhibits four main “quarters” corresponding roughly to the cardinal directions and surrounding an enormous plaza which is empty, except for a squared building which was probably used for ceremonial purposes. The eastern sector of the town – connected to the center by a spectacular east-west alignment of double-jamb doorways – is the unique part built in fine Inca stonework and was certainly devoted to the rulers and to ritual activities (tours a machu picchu, day tour peru).
If we compare the two plans, we immediately see that also tours a Machu Picchu was apparently conceived in a pretty similar, quadripartite way (Fig. 2, left).1 The division of the town in sectors which will be used here (slightly different to the one usually adopted) is given in Fig. 3; from it we can recognize a key difference with Huanuco Pampa: buildings blocks at Machu Picchu are present only in two sectors (I and II). Most of the buildings in these two sectors can be understood trough stylistic analysis of Inca architecture (Gasparini and Margolies 1980, Kendall 1985, Niles 2004 tours a machu picchu, day tour peru). Indeed most of the Kanchas (blocks) were clearly conceived as residences of the elite, as shown by the fine stone works and the presence of double-jamb doorways. In particular, the block of Sector I which is provided with a private garden and direct access to the first of the gravity fountains (i.e., the purest water) was very probably the private apartment of the ruler when he visited the site. Scattered around in both these residential quarters are, however, many buildings which are clearly conceived for ritual purposes, as it is shown, for instance, by their astronomical alignments (see next Section). Proceeding anti-hourly we encounter Sector III (the northernmost). This Sector appears to have been intentionally left deprived of buildings. In a sense we can say that it is actually occupied by the Huaynapicchu tours mountain. The central plaza ends at the sides of Huaynapicchu tours; to the right, near the start of the path ascending to the summit, a visitor encounters the so called Sacred Rock complex, a leveled small plaza closed to the west by a huge natural rock which was sculpted in such a way to resemble the profile of Mount Yanatin tours, visible at the distance. Finally, Sector IV contains, instead of building’s blocks, a sequence of very peculiar structures (tours a machu picchu, day tour peru). The sequence of such structures as they are viewed by a newcomer arriving to the town is the following:
1) The gate. Contrary to almost all Inca cities, such as tours a Huanuco Pampa, tours a Machu Picchu was indeed fenced by a wall, with a doorway near the western end (tours a machu picchu, day tour peru). The function of the wall was to create a physical separation between the settlement and the outside without however having a defensive aim; in other words Machu Picchu was not “fortified” (accordingly, the town had no springs or water reservoirs). 2) A “disordered” zone were stone-quarrying activities were carried out. It is perhaps worth noticing that those stones which exhibit regularly spaced drill-bits holes were not worked by the Incas but are the results of modern “archaeological” experiments; actually this method – typical of the Romans – was not used by the Incas. They instead used hard hammer-stones and took advantage of natural fissures of the rocks. Inca methods are clearly visible in many other points of the same area (tours a machu picchu, day tour peru). 3) The so called Sacred Plaza. It is a small space open to the western horizon and closed on the other three sides. To the east, in particular, one finds the so-called Temple of the Three Windows, actually a 3-sided building. The windows, a spectacular feat of engineering composed by huge, perfectly dressed polygonal blocks, are located on the east wall facing the central plaza (tours a machu picchu, day tour peru). 4) The so called Intihuatana, a terraced, steep pyramid on the summit of which lies a carved stone of white granite (tours a machu picchu, day tour peru).