Tours Machu Picchu and the Inca Trail

TOURS MACHU PICCHU AND INCA TRAIL – An archaeological adventure in Cusco – Peru

With “The Inca Trail” want our three protagonists alone, equipped only with what they can carry themselves, made a long journey of more than fifteen thousand kilometers across South America, traveling by road, mountain trails, sailing canoe, on foot and horseback a variety of ecosystems ranging from the desert, the jungle and the great mountain ranges and covering eighty percent of the world climate types. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

The motivation of such an enterprise is fundamentally cultural and archaeological. We aim to create a link between different nations and peoples who share their Hispanic and Native American ancestry and a common history whose origins are the great cultures and civilizations that developed prior to the cultural and social unification of the Inca empire. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

To interview with some of the leading experts in prehispanic archeology and photographically document the ruins of the great monuments and important archaeological sites of past civilizations are the fundamental objectives of this expedition that will result in the collection of didactic and graphic material that will serve to the realization of audiovisual, newspaper articles, photographic exhibitions and conferences, which will be released in a specialized website that will chronicle the experience of the expedition step by step: www.estudiosgeograficos.org and www.toursperumachupicchu.com. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

The Inca Empire or Tawantinsuyu was a real social and cultural revolution that originated in the conquests of the fifth Inca, Capac Yupanqui, and came to cover an area of even greater than the Roman Empire ground, territorially unified cultures and civilizations very different between 1200 and 1532 d. C. The importance of cohesive communications to maintain an empire of such gigantic proportions gave rise to a vast network of roads known by the nickname El Camino del Inca or Capac Ñan, which crossed fertile valleys, barren deserts and Andean peaks, reaching the farthest. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

At present, they can still be traveled many of these old cobbled paths, which fragments are preserved in very good condition, especially in mountainous landscapes and jungle, far from modern civilization, most of which can only be reached ATVs , by the river, on foot or horseback. The Inca Trail stretched over ten thousand kilometers of paved roads stone ranging from northern Ecuador to the State of Concepcion in central Chile. It was the common link many different prehispanic cultures we intend to explore and document this expedition. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

In order to take advantage of the best weather in the four countries currently cover the territory of the former Inca Empire Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Chile, and considering that much of the expedition will be developed by the Amazon rainforest , Ocucaje and the deserts of Atacama, and high mountain areas in the Andes, the most propitious time for this trip is the beginning of autumn in the southern hemisphere coincides with our spring. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

The expedition will start from Spain to Santiago de Chile later this month of March 2006 to be back, after forty-five day trip in early May. A total of fifteen thousand kilometers we have served to document photographically the most important remains of the Inca civilization, its predecessors cultures and the subsequent Spanish colonization. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

Since October 2005 have implemented all previous, essential to begin the journey actions. maps and guides of all countries were achieved contacted embassies of different countries in Spain to meet the necessary procedures in each border: visas, vehicle registration, insurance, vaccines, etc. It has also acquired additional information through the newsrooms of several magazines devoted to travel and knowledgeable people from different countries. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

Transcendence QhapaqÑan Inca Trail – permanent job in Peru:

Other than della they say, is knowing they did on the way to the mountains, the highest peaks, where more land was discovered, a high Placetas, to one side or the other of the road, with its tiers of stones to climb them, by those high mountains and Baxas, snowfall and snow, which incidentally is a beautiful view, because some parts, depending on the height of the mountains by do is the way, are discovered, fifty, sixty, eighty hundred leagues of land, where peaks as high mountains that seem to reach the sky and on the other hand, valleys and ravines so deep, that seems to flow into the center of the earth … “(Tours Machu Picchu 1 day) are

In 2003, the Joint Statement of Presidents of the Rio Group, which included novel and visionary manner was signed commitment Peru, Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Chile and Ecuador, to jointly develop the project of “Qhapaq Ñan or Camino principal Andino “. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

Few could have envisioned then the importance of the step he was taking to find in the very roots of our identity, livelihood of integration between our peoples. It was found in the road structure called Qhapaq Ñan the clearest symbol of how articulate we could conceive the order of the Andean people and how from that scheme, contemporary peoples are binding, connection points, patterns understanding, common criteria and However, a network on which we can continue weaving our destinations. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

The Qhapaq Ñan has provided since then a different way to understand our history and territory to Peru giving a fair opportunity to take possession in the panorama of Latin America, as an actor and manager of future cultural activities based on the fundamental elements of the past. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

The Camino Principal Andino gives us the ability to understand and develop harmonious ways of understanding between man and nature, gives sensible examples of territorial management and admirably shows the ability of the former to dominate their space and make the Way, the fundamental pillar of the achievements in the social, political and economic aspects. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

Since 2003, the National Institute of Culture through the “Qhapaq Ñan – Main Andean Road” program has been developing an intense and ongoing work in research of this actual field and in the work of cabinet where the information collected over many hours, days and months, walking since then, no less than 14,781.068 Km is processed. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

It has identified archaeological monuments and established the path of the trunk road and cross paths and data associated with intangible heritage and landscape wealth. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

One of the larger goals is to vindicate the presence of men in their ancestral lands, recover the memory of a way of being and see us, to value ourselves as we should respect in diversity. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

The work of the Qhapaq Ñan program is based on technical proposals seeking to involve the population in order to protect and potentially develop doers peoples and heirs of the Andean tradition. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

With the goal of generating sustainable forms of tourism development and better understanding of the specific processes of each community or region. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

In the Qhapaq Ñan, the principle of respect for others and checking the similarity is amazing. Researchers from various specialties and disciplines and interests of various nationalities are linked in this effort to lay the foundation of history. From the National Institute of Culture, the Qhapaq Ñan progresses as one gets, point to point, the threads of a great fabric which must be present and recognized all the elements that make the cultural diversity of Peru, the fundamental basis of our way of being. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

This work is also woven with the contribution of the various programs or national committees of the six countries where the Main Andean Road also runs and who has been working intensively to unify technical criteria; Registration forms and information management, being able to jointly apply for the Qhapaq Ñan that in 2011, can be recognized by Unesco as a World Heritage Site; as testimony to the work of the Andean men since time immemorial to the present day, they have drawn up and walked that path, making it to safety is the path that unites us, that integrates us and brings us back to the essence of our common origins. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

Not surprisingly, the chronicler Pedro Cieza de Leon, as early as 1553 times, stated:

“… One of the things I most admired me, watching and noting the things in this kingdom, was to think how and how could be made as big and proud as he see roads and forces men sufficed to make and tools and instruments that could pave the mountains and breaking rocks to make them as wide and good as they are; because I think that if the Emperor wanted to send to another road, like going from Quito to Cuzco Cuzco or leaves to go to Chile … .. “(Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

For Peru the importance of this program is substantive, having been recognized as an activity of national interest according to Law 28260 and in compliance with this, the National Institute of Culture integrates professionals from various specialties, citizens and workers together, make work at Qhapaq Ñan an expression of confidence in the greatness of Peru and a way to express the hope that this Qhapaq Ñan is the great unifier of Peruvians and a route to envision a future of integration. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

Accounts of the chroniclers Qhapaq Ñan and Machu Picchu:

To investigate the Inca road system or Qhapaq Ñan, we have to resort first to the earliest written sources, ie, those chronicles that were written after the Spanish conquest. Therefore, our focus is primarily on the versions offered by the first eyewitnesses of the events carried out by the Spanish soldiery when erupts for the first time in Tawantinsuyu and get deep into it following the Qhapaq Ñan. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

Early chroniclers: Among these early writers can quote Miguel de Estete and his work Relation of the discovery of Peru; Francisco de Jerez with his True Relation of the Conquest of Peru; Pedro Sancho de la Hoz and its Relation of the Conquest of Peru; or Cristobal de Mena with the conquest of Peru called New Castilla, all of 1534. These chroniclers of the conquest, in addition to travel along the roads, observed the operation of the road system or Qhapaq Ñan, or rather, what was left of him, because as we know, was affected by the civil war between Huascar and Atahualpa. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

In his chronicles described, itinerary, the events from 1532, made the trip from Puna Island to Tumbes and from there into the empire. They describe some places the road and the villages where they rested. For example, it is well known that made the journey from Tumbes to Cajamarca to meet with the Inca Atahualpa and then capture it. Months later, the delegation headed by Hernando Pizarro begins the journey of Cajamarca to Pachacamac, in order to collect gold and silver of the temple of Pachacamac by Atahualpa offered to pay his ransom. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

References for archaeological work Qhapaq Nan Machu Picchu – Peru:

This historical information is relevant because it provides important references for developing archaeological fieldwork, which have identified and registered as archaeological monuments many of the towns and villages mentioned by the chroniclers, and evidently locate other sections of Inca roads in the his four or regions. In this relationship of historical writings also found that famous letter by Hernando Pizarro raised to the Hearing of Santo Domingo, Letter to the judges of the Audiencia of Santo Domingo (1533), where the journey to Pachacamac is told. For this reason we can say that this first-hand documentation is vital. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

Pachacamac path to Jauja still has walls very similar to those in the valleys of the northern coast tapiales – Peru – Cusco – Machu Picchu. Between the valleys of Pisco and Nasca, roads could be transited avoiding fatigue and intense desert heat. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

Years later, Pedro Cieza de Leon in The Dominion of the Incas (1553), expressed amazement and admiration for the Inca Trail, writing what admirable of its construction characteristics – “exceeding the Roman and Hannibal made to build on the Alps” – and his utility. Narra that transited the Qhapaq Ñan high dignitaries carried on litters and large caravans of llamas also mobilized carrying their loads. If the width of the road is the longitudinal path of the saw had an average width of between 4 and 15 m., And was defined by an edge architecture made from quarried stone and paved road. This path could exceed 2,000 km. Long in the country. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

It also highlights the stairs with thousands of steps such as Huaylillo hill in the department of La Libertad, which ascended a steep slope, and the mountain range Pariacaca in the Sierra de Lima. Later Guaman Poma de Ayala, in his First New Chronicle and Good Governance (1614), provides a valuable relationship of partners tambos the road system and comprising from the simplest and smallest to the largest and most important, defining provincial capitals. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

But it was not only the chroniclers who appreciated this magnanimous work of road engineering and wrote about it, but also secular or religious colonial officials, including the governor Vaca de Castro in Ordinances Tambos (1543) and Francisco de Toledo Rate the General Visit (1570-1575), who drew up administrative reports and other official documents dating from the early colonial period and the process of evangelization, and containing populations or routes to specific locations, in order to organize the mita to dairy farms located in the roads, assess the population and tax them, and evangelize the new subjects of the crown. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

A secondary objective was to reorganize the old Inca road system that was slowly falling into disuse and destroyed. These sources are also used to identify new routes and new partner sites, and indirectly the characteristics of the road. In this sense, Fray Reginaldo de Lizarraga, in his brief description of all the land of Peru (1589), described the coastal road in the following terms: “the way the sand was marked at intervals by large beams, kneeling in the sand on the inside. When the road entered a valley between two walls appeared by way of walls made of masonry mud from a height of a state to prevent travelers jeopardize sowings spanning “. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

The Qhapaq Ñan program, using these data and references from other contemporary scholars, noted the existence of these roads in the desert of Ica marked with poles, as described by Lizárraga; also very near Lima, in the sector ‘Las Palmas’, the path of Pachacamac to Jauja still has walls very similar tapiales those walls of the roads in the valleys of the northern coast of La Libertad and Lambayeque go to the desert and whose evidence still survive. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

The keys of chronic Qhapaq Ñan – Cusco – Machu Picchu – Peru:

These descriptions not only offer routes and construction characteristics, but also mobility strategies or displacement along the roads. Thus the father Bernabé Cobo in his History of the New World, 1653, illustrates the matter when he says that to cross the harsh deserts that lie between the coastal valleys of the Pacific slope or up the coast to the mountains following the during these valleys, the strategic location of some dairy farms allowed to reach them and thus enjoy a refreshing break before starting the journey again. On the other hand, it points out that the tour took place in the evening hours to avoid the intense heat of the day I could feel in the desert or in the chaupiyunga (the middle of the coastal valleys). Also, for those references we know about the existence of some natural pathways, such as ravines that link the coastal valleys, allowing faster and more effective transit. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

For example in the region of Ica, specifically between the valleys of Pisco and Nasca, we notice the presence of roads that take advantage of the course of these streams in areas where the valleys are closer together. These roads could be relatively easily transited avoiding fatigue that produces the sandy soil of the desert and the intense heat of this. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

Other sources of information that provide us clues to identify the routes of roads and therefore understand the magnitude of the Inca road system, are the stories of civil wars between the Spaniards during the sixteenth century. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

Similarly, the routes followed by the liberating armies of South and North during the war of Independence; stories of war and parts produced during the Campaign of the Scrub in the Pacific War; and news of the movements of brigands of the early twentieth century in the northern highlands of our country. All the documentation that reveals the mobility of people who for various historical circumstances have moved by the Qhapaq Ñan from different parts of the country, certainly has a rich and valid for prehispanic identify routes that may not appear in the chronicles potential. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

As the operation and condition of the road system, back to the references of the chroniclers of the conquest, who took direct contact with the population and infrastructure located at the roadside. They observed the operation of the drainage channels in the driveway, the shelter, construction and even destruction of the bridges to prevent the passage of armies during the war between Huascar and Atahualpa. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

In identifying the road Currently, the identified segments of the Qhapaq Ñan preserved demonstrate the great investment of labor in its production, as is the case of the paved road in the area of Tingo (Huanuco), the steps of Pariacaca or the tunnel that leads to Maucachaca bridge over the Apurimac river. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

However, segments that have been disappearing for its abandonment, as the way of the northern highlands of Piura that goes to the Ecuador, which is covered by groves also exist. On the other hand, the trace of other paths has been used to design and build roads. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

Those roads that currently are maintained and preserved most of its original attributes of the Incas, are precisely those that were abandoned or fell into disuse with the Spanish conquest, as the way of Incahuasi-of Lunahuaná to Chincha in coast, or the ways in today covered by sandy deserts, jungle and highlands of more than 4,000 meters above sea level, and are seen as a kind of “road” which survive after nearly 500 years. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

Important research Qhapaq Ñan – Machu Picchu – Cusco – Peru:

Three investigations mark significant milestones in understanding the Qhapaq Ñan: Alberto Regal (1936), John Hyslop (1992) and Ricardo Espinoza ‘The Wayfarer’ (2002). All of them, in their time and from different study methods and viewpoints, managed to glimpse the real magnitude of the Inca roads and associated sites. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

Alberto Regal, based on meticulous information chroniclers in colonial administrative documents and accounts of foreign travelers of the nineteenth century, managed to partially reconstruct the Inca road system and present their own findings, showing the variety of shapes and characterizations this. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

John Hyslop, from an archaeological perspective, conducted the analysis of a representative sample of the Inca roads throughout the area of Tawantinsuyu. Assessed the state of the roads and tried to understand the magnitude of the Inca road system characterizing scientifically for the first time. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

Ricardo Espinoza toured the Inca mountain road linking the present republics of Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. This exploration is the first field survey throughout this Inca road. Also, part of that recognition toured seven side sections, recovering on the integration of important Inca trail between the mountains and the coast information. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

Subsequently, the Qhapaq Ñan Program of the National Institute of Culture conducted extensive surveys of the Inca road system since 2003, recording, comparing and corroborating the stories that reporters did on the road, as the Tumbes to Cajamarca; I Cajatambo to Pumpu, followed by Hernando Pizarro; the way to the northern highlands in Piura; and the great longitudinal mountain road, which links the most important Inca administrative centers from Cusco to the north, specifically to the border with Ecuador and south to the border with Bolivia. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

Product of it can be said that while the initial figures of the number of kilometers comprising the Qhapaq Ñan have varied over the years, also surprising that such variation has been increasing due to the work of recognition and registration undertaken by the National Institute of Culture. This sustained work allows better understanding of the magnitude and diversity of the roads in the country. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

John Hyslop in his publication Qhapaq Ñan. The Inca road system (1992) estimated that the road network in the Tawantinsuyu had 25,000 Km. -in The six republics which crosses the Qhapaq Nan. Today that figure has been largely superseded and only represent between 30% and 35% of existing roads in our country (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day). Currently it is estimated that the road network in the Peruvian territory would of 60,000 to 70,000 Km regard, only Cusco, home of the ancient imperial capital region has reported approximately 9,500 km of roads..; while at the national level without having to Cusco- to date they have identified about 14.781 Km. of roads, which would add approximately 25,000 Km. initially identified by Hyslop. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

It is important to clarify that there is still recognize and define the way in various areas of the country, as the region of the Andes, the coastal desert and jungle. In these places the topographical and geographical complexity demands greater effort to register, there are more stretches of road. Prehispanic societies that occupied these environments were assimilated and integrated into the Inca state by the Qhapaq Ñan. Each of these natural habitats have been poorly explored either by its inaccessibility or amplitude, requiring the application of different strategies, which is expected to expand gradually. (Tours Machu Picchu 1 day)

Tours Machu Picchu and the Inca Trail
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