Restorations Explorations and Excavations of Machu Picchu

Restorations Explorations and Excavations of Machu Picchu: The Inca city of Machu Picchu is in the Cordillera Vilcabamba, at the top of the left bank of the Vilcanota River, at 2400 meters above sea level; .. Jurisdiction of the district of Machu Picchu, province of Urubamba, department of Cusco, Republic of Peru, 13 ° 9.13 ‘south and 72o 32’ 34 “west longitude Ecological floor is tropical yunga or jungle is surrounded by majestic mountains: passing north of the Waynapicchu hill side at 2750 meters above sea level to the south, the mountain Machu Picchu at 3050 meters above sea level east, elevations: Yanantin to 3200m and Phutukusi to 2650 meters, the distance is also currency, the snowy Waqaywillka or Veronica at 5750 meters above sea level west, is the Viskachani hill at 2800 meters above sea level in the same direction Aobamba valley and the snowy Pumasillu distance, around which are located Vilcabamba Choqekirao and observed (Tours Peru).

HISTORY OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL INTERVENTION IN MACHU PICCHU

RESTORATION OF MACHU PICCHU:

In 1939, the Board of Archaeology, began the work of architectural restoration, especially in the corridor Intiwatana. The charge of this work was the master builder (bricklayer) Leonids Salas. Between 1943 and 1949, Ing. Manuel Briceno, supervised by Luis A. Pardo, restored the walls of the northern sector of Ushno (pyramidal structure) whose summit is located Intiwatana. (Tours Peru)

In 1956, under the direction of Leonidas Salas, they were restored the crumbling sidewalks of this sector and west of Ushno; also the group of the Three Doors. (Tours Peru)

In 1957, led by Ing. Eulogio Escobar, it was restored Ushno base. In 1959, Ing. Cabada restored access and main entrance of the Sanctuary. (Tours Peru)

In 1969, Dr. Manuel Chavez Ballon restored the group known as the Jails (Temple of the Condor) and the Sacred Rock. (Tours Peru)

Between 1975 and 1978, the anthropologist Marino Sanchez performed maintenance work on the Sacred Plaza and part of group of King or Casa del Inka; and executing also other archaeological excavations. Also in this period Wayraqtambo was restored, under the auspices of PER-39 Project.

Between 1979 and 1983, Dr. Luis Watanabe restored the places called Military Group, Room Mortars and Qolqas or warehouses. (Tours Peru)

In 1996, the anthropologist Fernando Astete restored the Inca Trail parallel to the Vilcanota River-from Km 88 to Km 104-, connecting with Wiñaywayna..; used today as tourist circuit called “Sacred Way”. It also restored the road leading to the summit of the mountain Machu Picchu and enabled the journey to the top of Phutukusi. (Tours Peru)

Today, Machu Picchu restorations are permanent, conducted by the National Institute of Culture (INC) and by specialists. The Bachelor of Archaeology Mormontoy Alfredo says: “All conservation and restoration works are made under a methodological process and adhered to national and international law; always taking care of their originality. “(Tours Peru)

Meanwhile, the anthropologist Fernando Astete24 states that the whole structure of the Inca city of Machu Picchu: streets, squares, terraces, temples and other facilities, are original; this, according to photographic evidence taken by Bingham in 1911 and 1912 (Fig. 11). Also it explains that approximately 25% has been operated archaeologically, with respect to the rustic walls that were at risk of collapse. (Tours Peru)

MACHU PICCHU EXPLORATIONS:

In 1912, during the cleaning and excavation, the Bingham expedition thoroughly explores the cliffs and around Machu Picchu, finding several architectural vestiges like the “Great Cave” and the “Temple of the Moon.” (Tours Peru)

In 1915, Dr. Bingham performs different expeditions and find the Inka roads that connect with Machu Picchu. (Tours Peru)

In 1941, the scientific expedition called “Viking Fund”, in New York, sponsored by the Wenner Gren and directed by Paul Fejos, explore Machu Picchu and the Inca Trail, identifying the places that Bingham had discovered in 1915. He also discovers some important ruins today known as Wiñaywayna. (Tours Peru)

In 1942, the expedition “Urubamba”, led by Dr. Julio C. Tello, explores Wiñaywayna Machu Picchu and recovers the lush vegetation. (Tours Peru)

Since 1984, the anthropologist Fernando Astete has been conducting various investigations, which found roads, canals and various architectural remains that are still abandoned. He also managed to identify the places that Bingham discovered in 1912. He also crowned the tops of the hills Viskachani and Yanantin. (Tours Peru)

EXCAVATIONS MACHU PICCHU:

In 1912, Bingham excavated, both in the urban and around. The results are described in the following subtitle. (Tours Peru)

In 1968, anthropologist Alfredo Valencia dug in the Temple of the Condor. This operation was repeated in 1974. (Tours Peru)

In 1968, anthropologist lines quoted above and Dr. Manuel Chavez Ballon dug around the Sacred Rock, in an area of 31.5 square meters. This work allowed understand the process of building terraces and enclosures area. (Tours Peru)

In 1969, anthropologist and archaeologist Romulo Valencia Bejar found in the Km. 122 carved a large rock, which they called Intiwatana. (Tours Peru)

In 1974, the PER-39 Project, directed by Jose Gonzalez Corrales, conducted excavations in urban areas. In one of the quadrants of the first level, 20 cm. deep, humus soil found fragments of ceramics Inka and schists; in the second level he found packed sand of granitic rock of 10 cm. of thickness; the third was filled with regular-sized rocks and the basement had a depth of 80 cm., filled with large stones. (Tours Peru)

In 1974, anthropologist Arminda Gibaj to excavated at the base of the wall of the Temple of the Three Windows and found potsherds 1031, corresponding to aríbalos, dishes and pots. Also between 1975 and 1979, the anthropologist Julinho Zapata dug in different sectors of the urban area, discovering various ceramic objects: aríbalos, rachis (containers for beer-making), pots, plates; and other styles Inka and Chimu. He also found some mud floors and stone walls plastered with a clay layer 2.5 cm. thick, which kept paintings of yellow and ocher colors. In addition, he found collars, clamps, pins called tupus, scrapers and mortars. In the area of the quarries, found several hammers jiwaya (hematite). (Tours Peru)

In 1977, anthropologist Marino Sanchez made further excavations around the Temple of the Sun, inside and outside the Main Temple and Sacred Plaza .a. In the latter placed an entrance to an underground cave 25, 2.20 and 2.50 meters deep, corresponding to a burial chamber of three walls; in it he found a way teaspoon rod, made of an alloy of silver and copper, decorated with the figure of a bird; and other similar, with head flame. He also found fragments of llama fiber remains of clothing, bones, human hair, a piece of pottery and a lytic tray. The burial cave was disturbed in its architectural context, and after the respective analysis was covered again. It found no mummy. (Tours Peru)

Between 1979 and 1983, Dr. Luis Watanabe made several excavations, but ‘Do not know the report of the results. (Tours Peru)

In 1988, Fidel Ramos, Julio Maza and Anselmo Mists dug in various places, they left no any report. (Tours Peru)

In 1989, Fidel Condori excavated in the Sun Temple and the Royal Tomb drainage channels and finding some sort of path of 25 cm. wide, embedded into the floor of the curved wall. It also found a small enclosure with niches located under the floor. (Tours Peru)

In his excavations in the Royal Tomb it not placed any cultural element. In 1990, a Japanese Mission excavated in the Hall of Mortars and the Main Temple; in the latter to verify the causes of displacement of the walls. Concluding that niche landslides due to rain weakened cue filtration fillings base. (Tours Peru)

Between 1994 and 1998, the anthropologist Elva Torres made several excavations, on which the anthropologist Astete27 reports that nine; burial caves excavated skeletal remains exhumed 18 individuals. only object of this metal found in Machu Picchu officially and currently on display at the Museum of Machu Picchu site: in 1995, in the small square near pisonay tree, a gold bracelet was found. (Tours Peru)

In October 2002 he was located buried at the foot of a cliff in the eastern part of Machu Picchu, the skeletal remains of a young man apparently. (Tours Peru)

RESULT OF EXCAVATIONS EI 1912 Dr. George Eaton, reports: a total of 107 burial caves, located in different areas around Machu Picchu Inca city was found. Also, in a contour map of the location of the caves it was recorded: from 1 to 57. In total the skeletal remains of 164 individuals were found. The most important tomb was found at the foot of the rock shelter and was identified as the cave 26. (Tours Peru)

The Tomb of the Mamakuna, or Cave 26; Located next to the Inca Trail that connects to the Puerta del Sol (Intipunku), it is located on an embankment, with two staircases connecting and under a boulder, Dr. Eaton called “The rock shelter” or Cave 26 ; Bingham called him “The burial of the high priestess or Mamacuna”. Upon excavate, the complete skeleton of a woman in fetal position or bent was found, and close to it intact skeletal remains of a dog. Among his possessions wide mouth pot for cooking was found, decorated with a snake. (Tours Peru)

In many graves the remains of human skeletons were incomplete and scattered; some lacked the skull, femur others, etc. The bones were scattered, it is unknown what caused it. Alongside the human remains objects such as ceramic pots, food, wooden spinning wheels, pins (tupus), tweezers, bronze mirrors, animal bones, were found etc. (Tours Peru)

Human remains were damaged due to the intense humidity that had easily broken. In the tomb 56, currently located where the hotel is tourists, fragments of a cow and warm peach seeds were found. (Tours Peru)

In the first tomb, which is on the east side of the slope, they found the remains of a woman of 35 years and with her pots and pots of food. In the second cave they found fragments of two skulls of adults, but no pottery or bronze. In the third cave they discovered a skeleton of another woman with skull oblong (elongated). (Tours Peru)

In the other caves they were discovered tombs more human remains, abundant pottery and some metal utensils. In a human skeleton and a brass bar (champi) used as a construction tool was found; and bones of animals: llamas, guinea pigs, viskachas and birds, which had been roasted and offered to Deceased. (Tours Peru)

Inside the urban area few graves were located. It was excavated in the Holy Place and a stone tomb was found in a bottle; when it was opened, it was eerily empty. (Tours Peru)

Excavations inside the enclosures yielded few samples. In the Main Temple and the Temple of the Three Windows, the results were negative. Bingham explains: “There is nothing to discover or a bone and a bowl tii” 33. Subsequently, excavated in the external part of the Temple of the Three Windows, where he found plenty of pots and cups decorated jugs (Tours Peru).

In the northeastern neighborhoods, 177 vessels that were very similar to those found in Choqekirao and Q enqo found. North-west, where the Main Temple and the Intiwatana is, they found nothing. (Tours Peru)

In the sector of water sources 558 copies of pottery vessels were found. Close to the house of Inka, pieces of jars, pots, plates, glasses, cups, jugs, toasters, pot lids and some sample whistles shaped flute and aríbalos were discovered. (Tours Peru)

On top of a rock engraved they observed snakes. Below it was a small cave, where they found lots of jaws, jaws and apparently a small skull of an adult woman; the bones were damaged. In the same cave, located a bronze mirror with square perforated handle, a knife and a pin made of bronze, a cup of chicha, a broken knife made of chalcedony, chips erdes stones, small hammers and stone polishers, tiny pebbles river, fragments of pottery and bones flame. Also near this rock was unearthed a bronze knife ue, which represented a fisherman boy Adomo. (Tours Peru)

Restorations Explorations and Excavations of Machu Picchu
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