The Fall of the Inca Empire – tours to Machu Picchu: This volume begins with a compendious work which offers a new interpretation Porras, very different from the traditionally accepted, for the fall of the empire of the Incas. This study is the result of a thorough analysis by the author through documents and information that have allowed you to present and clarify, within the broader historical context, fundamental aspects of that event. For this reason the study of Porras was received with special interest and without any qualms since 1935 when it was published, and has given rise to the new historians offer similar conclusions in recent work, although some of them have avoided mentioning the source inspiring “Tours to Machu Picchu”
The fall of the Inca Empire – tours to Machu Picchu came out in the Journal of the Catholic University of Peru that year; It was reissued by the same University in 1993 and Sollertia Journal of students from various faculties of the University of San Marcos in 1990, with a short introductory note to the teacher Miguel Maticorena. Important works such as Bobbio Fernando Rosas, Liliana Regalado de Hurtado and that doctor Maticorena clearly set the interest to study Porras put aside this psychological motive; that of the material elements, among which involves horses and weapons used in those days, and supernatural factors as determinants of the defeat of Atahualpa in Cajamarca. Porras effectively departs from these concepts and provides a more consistent view with the reality lived at the time, conceptually estimated within an overall vision in which, as noted Maticorena plays scholarship, data, document and the “full awareness of the correlation analysis-synthesis, erudition-interpretation “. In that way, says Liliana Regalado, “Porras with brief study but just stepped forward sick significant in relation to glimpse or approach a number of issues that the next generation would be responsible for developing”.
When you start your express Porras that “the defeat of Cajamarca is not simply due to the courage of the Spaniards or by fear of the Indians work also explained by the superhuman factors alleged by the parties, nor the miracle of St. James helping with his formidable sword to the Spanish, or the prophecy of Huayna Capac Garcilaso talking about the upcoming completion of the empire and coming of a bearded white men, who must obey “. To Porras if it is true those factors had some influence on the minds of both peoples were not decisive in that event, any material elements. Rather it is explained by other facts that were not cyclical but from the process itself in the development and strength of the Inca empire. I consider it unnecessary to dwell on each of the factors considered by Porras to be clear and precise. Therefore I limit myself only to mention the most important below. “Tours to Machu Picchu”
According to Porras the Inca empire began to collapse only to find as the reason the vast territory that could be developed and maintained as it had “great spirit warriors and conquerors” as Pachacutec and Tupac Yupanqui and, above all, the preservation of a united and strong militia “sober and virtuous,” as was that of the dried apricots. Huayna Capac had those same warlike virtues, but it is already present and symptoms of corruption and easing traditional military customs, which determines that the Inca victories are slow and difficult to assert. He no longer feels “the irresistible momentum of the legions Quechua”; that is, the military caste of the apricots loses force and vigor of other times. The conquest of Quito, among other things, break the unity of the empire created a new source of power, means for Porras Tahuantinsuyo loss because it creates the fatal germ of dissolution and irreconcilable rivalry between Cuzco and Quito arises. This paves the way for the Spanish conquistadors who in the words of one of them “if the land had not been divided and had not died Huayna Capac could not enter or win.” But beyond these fundamental reasons, precise Porras others that could be considered circumstantial importance when the presence of the Spanish in the Peruvian coast, such as: the extent of territory hinders better control of peoples under the power of Cuzco; ethnic rebel just conquered and cohesion are the vanquished by the rigor with which they are treated, thus breaking “the proverbial humanity” of the Quechua race and “peacekeeping traditions of the Empire” is also lost. To this changes or transfers of populations were “true exile”, sorted by Huayna Capac and the “stigma of indiscipline and disobedience to seize vassals” are added while the warrior formation of the imperial forces It is less rigid and becomes pleasant. In the latter case Huayna Capac himself manly meeting the conditions of their ancestors is carried away by “the invincible tendency to pleasure, splendor and drink.” The fact Tomebamba build palaces that exceeded those of Cuzco, says Porras himself apart to reveal its sumptuous frivolity is, for provoking the resentment Cusco, one of the causes of the dissolution of the Empire. Fernando Rosas Bobbio, in recent work published in Alma Mater University of San Marcos, coincides with the ideas expressed by Porras, referring to the difficulties in controlling and financial management Tahuantinsuyo. “It is clear, he says, that what is here is weakening lines of communication and supply, control becomes difficult and the rail unit is in danger of breaking, rebellions multiply and repressions become more brutal; this creates or increases the discontent …. “
Alongside these reasons are those that are linked to economic development, mainly agricultural, and the abandonment of the principles of social cohesion. In this regard Porras says that “the strength and stability of the Empire came from healthy agricultural standards ayllus, mandatory and collective work, earth community, equality and proportion in the distribution of the fruits, paternal protection of bosses” . He adds, bluntly, “all this had created the Inca joy in the good governance of Tupac Yupanqui, was abandoned with improvident folly.” While the royal household and the privileged nobility under the pretext of war form a caste apart, “excluded from work, parasitic and lazy”, the people, the Hatun Runa worked hard since then not only the lands of the Inca and the Sun. and the community, but also of the new masters. Porras says “The Inca, breaking the economic unity of the Empire, regaled land to nobles and chiefs, who gave them to the Indians to cultivate, with an obligation to deliver some of the fruits”. And those were the best lands that became individual property, “in a people accustomed to collectivism”.
Porras synthesizes those causes that break the unity of the Inca Empire and facilitate European invasion, as follows: “At the time of the arrival of the Spaniards the ancient Inca unit was corroded by such seeds of division: an economic one, discontent class people against the ruling military aristocracy, another politician, the hatred between Cuzco and Quito. ” And on the subject for the first case, quote the chronicler Oviedo, who after questioning the conquerors who returned to Spain after the defeat of Atahualpa, “this immediate and clever slogan print: The people of war has very subdued those who they are farmers or rural people who understand agriculture. ” On the second Porras he says: “The fight between the two brothers Atahualpa -Huáscar and reveals all the intimate evils of Empire”. Consequently “the end of the Inca Empire was decreed, not the empty office of oracles, but the abandonment of the essential rules of humanity and moral severity, and traditional forces that had made the greatness of the Inca culture “In Peru, I magic of adventure and traditions.